365bet,365bet手机app

耐灾力是体现城市治理水平的基础指标

来源:365bet手机app   2019-04-02 10:21  编辑: 张从阳   人气:

导读:耐灾力(Disaster Resilience)在国内很少有这个提法,主要是指一个城市对自然灾害或人为灾害的承受能力和灾后的恢复能力。 任何一个城市的发展与繁荣,耐灾力是基矗一个城市的耐灾力水平一般体现在两个层面上:一方面是硬件,主要是指抵抗和应对灾害的基础设施、设备、材料

耐灾力(Disaster Resilience)在国内很少有这个提法,主要是指一个城市对自然灾害或人为灾害的承受能力和灾后的恢复能力。

任何一个城市的发展与繁荣,耐灾力是基础。一个城市的耐灾力水平一般体现在两个层面上:一方面是硬件,主要是指抵抗和应对灾害的基础设施、设备、材料、技术等,另一方面是软件,主要是指预防、应对灾害的法律、法规、规范,特别是人们预防和应对灾害的意识、知识等。

对一个城市来说,耐灾力的核心是人的预防灾害的意识和能力。北京作为中国的首都和世界上人口第三大城市,由于人口规模大、居住密度高,同时经济的集中度也很高,对灾害的耐受力要求也很高,也就是同样的灾害强度对北京造成的破坏要远远大于一般的中小城市,灾后的恢复也要比一般的城市难度大得多,恢复时间长的多。

2012年7月21日的60年一遇的洪水灾难就是体现一个城市耐灾力最生动的例子。7.21洪水造成的损失高达16亿美元,迫使56,933人疏散,部分立交桥和低洼地带大面积积水,甚至部分区域造成了人员伤亡。但同时,600年前建成的紫禁城并没有遭受严重的积水和重大人身和财产损失,仍然能够在当天正常运转。

通过这次洪水灾害首先反映出整个城市的排水系统的规划和设计存在明显的短视,比如:排水能力的设计一般按照30年一遇或50年一遇设计,但由于气候变暖和大面积城市开发对水土保持造成的影响,原来30年一遇的洪水可能变成10年一遇或15年一遇。按照历史纪录统计的降雨量作为设计标准存在明显的缺陷。另外,此次灾害也反映出整个城市排水系统的质量、日常维护和灾前的应对、预防流程等存在明显的缺失,反映出人的灾害意识淡薄对城市耐灾力造成的影响。

在2012年的大洪水之后,当地政府吸收了灾害的经验和教训,实施了多项改进措施,大幅度提升了城市的耐灾力水平,为应对未来可能的洪水侵袭做好准备。比如在城市的低洼积水路段都设置了安全水位标识线,保证了在洪水来袭时,车辆和行人能准确判断是否可以安全通过;在重要的交通要道和桥下低洼地段,投入巨资增加或全面改造了雨水提升设备的排水能力,同时加大了对排水管网维护人员的教育和培训,对存在质量问题的管网设施进行了排查和改造。

另外,随着“2016年至2030年北京总体规划”的确定,365bet体育政府东迁,低端产业和人口向河北、天津的疏解,这可以有效降低中心城区的人口密度,大幅度改善中心城区的基础设施水平,有效改善城市的水土保持状况,大幅度提升城市的耐灾力水平。

自从中国的城市化开始以来,人们的灾害意识淡薄一直是个普遍存在的问题。这一方面是由于城市管理者、企业、学校、机构等单位对灾害的知识培训、灾中的应对方法演练、灾后的重建恢复培训等缺少必要的时间和经济投入;另一方面主流媒体在世界各地发生灾害后报道的视角也对提升人们的灾害意识产生不利影响。因此,提升一个城市的耐灾力,富有远见的城市规划只是第一步,只有当实施政策的政府和大众拥有耐灾力的知识和意识,这才是一个强大,安全城市的基础。

建议教育部门应该从小学开始增加防灾课程,各级政府应定期组织社会大众参与防灾、救灾演习,把提升普通百姓的防灾、救灾意识和知识水平作为施政的重要组成部分。

作者:Lucy Zhao

所在部门:UC Berkeley college of Environmental Design

学生号码:3034470327

学生email:Lucy_z@berkeley.edu

私人email:Lucyzhao.wf@gmail.com

电话:+1 4158826577

 

Disaster Resilience

Most crucial to the prosperity and development of any major city is its resilience, its foundation its people’s awareness of and ability to prevent disaster. The capital city of China and the world’s third most populous city, Beijing is a key example of this. Following the centralization of the population and economy, Beijing has become significantly more vulnerable to natural disasters due to the unexpected weather created by climate change, and the rapid speed of China’s urbanization.

The recent disaster of the 60 years flood that struck the city on July 21, 2012 is the most vivid example. There were loss of at least 1.6 billion US dollars and forcing 56,933 people to relocate. Southwest Beijing reached a record of 18 inches of rain. Ironically, the forbidden city built 600 years ago was free from flooding and still managed to function. This flooding can be explained by the limited capacity of urban drainage systems and a loss of natural water bodies, as well as a considerable loss of land the during urban development of China. However, the single most critical factor to the extreme nature of its impact was the unpreparedness of the general public and unsatisfactory quality of modern infrastructure.

Before the 2008 Beijing Olympic, the Chinese government devoted large amounts of funding to renovating five major underground systems that BMCPNR (Beijing municipal commission of Planning and Natural Resources department) later admitted that they were only updated to a three-year-flood standard. By prioritising grandeur of impressive buildings on the street, the Beijing government was able to create an illusion of rapid development. However, this was indeed only just that: an illusion.

Another factor behind this extremely short public memory is the government censor that removes critical social media posts. In order to attract the public attention with political correctness, the media started to focusing on coverage of disaster relief instead of prioritising future flooding preparation. What people cannot see, such as underground infrastructure, is significantly lacking despite the speed of Beijing’s urban growth.

Following the major flooding in 2012, the local government has implemented several policies to prepare for future disasters. This is according to Wei Zhao, a member of BMCPNR bureau. Xi Jinping proposed a ‘Beijing overall plan for 2016 to 2030 ’ in 2015. This project reconfigured the centre of Beijing as a main political function and tourist area in the future. However, this plan will require the evacuation of more than 3 million local residents from the city centre, resulting in great difficulty with the execution of this project. The policy is predominantly based on the consideration of long term city development and safety concerns for future flooding and other disasters. Despite it being an act of resilience, a lot of residents are complaining and questioning the decisions of the government. Despite it being more than three years since the plan was implemented, more than half of the residents continue to resist relocation.

Short-sightedness has been a critical problem since the beginning of China’s urbanization. It leads to the majority of Chinese lacking awareness of these disasters and how to prevent them. The first reason is that the majority is not educated about disaster preparation. The second is that the media and news are mistrusted, leading to many underestimating the severity of the disaster. Lastly, traditionalist Chinese culture rationalises the disasters as a form of divine punishment. It seems unreasonable, but preparation for and prevention of disaster are subjects that rarely receive coverage in China. Long term urban planning is only the first step in the creation of a resilient city. People who implement these plans into reality with an awareness of disaster prevention are the foundation of a powerful, secure city. The local government should subsidize the education departments in order to add disaster prevention courses for primary school to high school students; architect studios and real-estate companies should also participate in similar courses.

 

Citation:

Xin, H. (2019). China allocates flood relief fund - Chinadaily.com.cn. [online] Global.chinadaily.com.cn. Available at: http://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201807/26/WS5b59ac44a31031a351e905f2.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

wang, q. (2019). 北京排水系统为何总是脆弱不堪?. [online] 纽约时报中文网. Available at: https://cn.nytimes.com/china/20120723/cc23wangqiang/ [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

李慧如 (2019). Beijing disaster necessitates risk analysis - China.org.cn. [online] China.org.cn. Available at: http://www.china.org.cn/opinion/2012-07/30/content_26064471.htm [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

Ghgtw.beijing.gov.cn. (2019). 365bet体育规划和自然资源委员会. [online] Available at: http://ghgtw.beijing.gov.cn/ [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

Bjmb.gov.cn. (2019). 365bet体育气象局. [online] Available at: http://www.bjmb.gov.cn/info/831/7765.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

Chen, A. (2019). China's new economic zone to focus on technology, innovation: media. [online] U.S. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-economy-property/chinas-new-economic-zone-to-focus-on-technology-innovation-media-idUSKBN1760PR [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

Globaltimes.cn. (2019). Beijing to continue phasing out non-capital functions in next five years - Global Times. [online] Available at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1022509.shtml [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

liu, y. (2019). 把灾难意识纳入中国国民教育. [online] Chinanews.com. Available at: http://www.chinanews.com/gn/news/2008/06-26/1294107.shtml [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

Mengjie (2019). Beijing releases full text of new city plan - Xinhua | English.news.cn. [online] Xinhuanet.com. Available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-09/29/c_136649259.htm [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

Li, J. (2019). Hong Kong Edition. [online] South China Morning Post. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1956354/beijing-considers-classifying-worst-smog-events-natural [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

 Li, Z. (2019). Has Beijing's air quality improved?. [online] BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-42513531 [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

Xu, N. (2019). Beijing floods: not enough prevention. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/jul/25/flooding-china [Accessed 25 Feb. 2019].

免责声明:耐灾力是体现城市治理水平的基础指标一文仅代表作者个人观点,与365bet手机app无关。其原创性以及文中陈述文字和内容未经本站证实,对本文以及其中全部或者部分内 容、文字的真实性、完整性、及时性本站不作任何保证或承诺,请读者仅作参考,并请自行核实相关内容。凡注明为其他媒体来源的信息,均为转载自其他媒体,转 载的目的只是为了传播更多的信息,并不代表本网赞同其观点,也不代表本网对其真实性负责。您若对该稿件内容有任何疑问或质疑,请即与365bet手机app联系 (QQ:1187215932),本网将迅速给您回应并做处理。